Source code for microscope.cameras.ximea

#!/usr/bin/env python3

## Copyright (C) 2020 David Miguel Susano Pinto <>
## Copyright (C) 2020 Ian Dobbie <>
## Copyright (C) 2020 Mick Phillips <>
## This file is part of Microscope.
## Microscope is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
## it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
## the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
## (at your option) any later version.
## Microscope is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
## but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
## GNU General Public License for more details.
## You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
## along with Microscope.  If not, see <>.

"""Ximea cameras.

Changing settings flushes the buffer

It is not possible to set some parameters during image acquisition.
In such cases, acquisition is stopped (camera is disabled) and the
restarted (camera is enabled).  However, stopping acquisition discards
any image in the camera memory that have not yet been read.

Modifying the following settings require acquisition to be stopped:

- ROIs
- binning
- trigger type (trigger source)

For more details, see the [XiAPI manual](

Hardware trigger

Ximea cameras in the MQ family accept software triggers even if set
for hardware triggers (see `vendor issues
However, `XimeaCamera.trigger()` checks the trigger type and will
raise an exception unless the camera is set for software triggers.


import contextlib
import enum
import logging
import typing

import numpy as np
from ximea import xiapi

import microscope

_logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

# During acquisition, we rely on catching timeout errors which then
# get discarded.  However, with debug level set to warning (XiApi
# default log level), we get XiApi messages on stderr for each timeout
# making logging impossible.  So change this to error.
# Debug level is a xiapi global setting but we need a Camera instance.

[docs]@contextlib.contextmanager def _disabled_camera(camera): """Context manager to temporarily disable camera.""" if camera.enabled: try: camera.disable() yield camera finally: camera.enable() else: yield camera
[docs]@contextlib.contextmanager def _enabled_camera(camera): """Context manager to temporarily enable camera.""" if not camera.enabled: try: camera.enable() yield camera finally: camera.disable() else: yield camera
[docs]@enum.unique class TrgSourceMap(enum.Enum): # The complete list is the XI_TRG_SOURCE enum (C code) or in the # xidefs module (Python code). XI_TRG_SOFTWARE = microscope.TriggerType.SOFTWARE XI_TRG_EDGE_RISING = microscope.TriggerType.RISING_EDGE XI_TRG_EDGE_FALLING = microscope.TriggerType.FALLING_EDGE
# Not all XI_TRG_SOURCE values are defined: # # XI_TRG_OFF: Capture of next image is automatically started after # previous. # # XI_TRG_LEVEL_HIGH: Specifies that the trigger is considered # valid as long as the level of the source signal is high. # # XI_TRG_LEVEL_LOW: Specifies that the trigger is considered valid # as long as the level of the source signal is low.
[docs]@enum.unique class TrgSelectorMap(enum.Enum): # The complete list is the XI_TRG_SELECTOR enum (C code) or in the # xidefs module (Python code). # Trigger starts the capture of one frame. XI_TRG_SEL_FRAME_START = microscope.TriggerMode.ONCE
# There are other modes/selector which look like they have matches # on TriggerMode but we never got to test them: # # XI_TRG_SEL_EXPOSURE_ACTIVE: Trigger controls the start and # length of the exposure. # # XI_TRG_SEL_FRAME_BURST_START: Trigger starts the capture of the # bursts of frames in an acquisition. # # XI_TRG_SEL_FRAME_BURST_ACTIVE: Trigger controls the duration of # the capture of the bursts of frames in an acquisition. # # XI_TRG_SEL_MULTIPLE_EXPOSURES: Trigger which when first trigger # starts exposure and consequent pulses are gating # exposure(active HI) # # XI_TRG_SEL_EXPOSURE_START: Trigger controls the start of the # exposure of one Frame. # # XI_TRG_SEL_MULTI_SLOPE_PHASE_CHANGE: Trigger controls the multi # slope phase in one Frame (phase0 -> phase1) or (phase1 -> # phase2). # # XI_TRG_SEL_ACQUISITION_START: Trigger starts acquisition of # first frame.
[docs]class XimeaCamera(, """Ximea cameras Args: serial_number (str): the serial number of the camera to connect to. It can be set to `None` if there is only camera on the system. """ def __init__( self, serial_number: typing.Optional[str] = None, **kwargs ) -> None: super().__init__(**kwargs) self._acquiring = False self._handle = xiapi.Camera() self._img = xiapi.Image() self._serial_number = serial_number self._sensor_shape = (0, 0) self._roi = microscope.ROI(None, None, None, None) self._binning = microscope.Binning(1, 1) # When using the Settings system, enums are not really enums # and even when using lists we get indices sent back and forth # (works fine only when using EnumInt. The gymnastic here # makes it work with the rest of enums which are there to make # it work with TriggerTargetMixin. trg_source_names = [ for x in TrgSourceMap] def _trigger_source_setter(index: int) -> None: trigger_mode = TrgSourceMap[trg_source_names[index]].value self.set_trigger(trigger_mode, self.trigger_mode) self.add_setting( "trigger source", "enum", lambda: TrgSourceMap(self.trigger_type).name, _trigger_source_setter, trg_source_names, ) def _fetch_data(self) -> typing.Optional[np.ndarray]: if not self._acquiring: return None try: self._handle.get_image(self._img, timeout=1) except Exception as err: # err.status may not exist so use getattr (see # if getattr(err, "status", None) == 10: # Timeout return None elif ( getattr(err, "status", None) == 45 # Acquisition is stopped and not self._acquiring ): # We can end up here during disable if self._acquiring # was True but is now False. return None else: raise data: np.ndarray = self._img.get_image_data_numpy() "Fetched imaged with dims %s and size %s.", data.shape, data.size ) return data
[docs] def abort(self):"Disabling acquisition.") if self._acquiring: # We set acquiring before calling stop_acquisition because # the fetch loop is still running and will raise errors 45 # otherwise. self._acquiring = False try: self._handle.stop_acquisition() except Exception: self._acquiring = True raise
[docs] def initialize(self) -> None: """Initialise the camera. Open the connection, connect properties and populate settings dict. """ n_cameras = self._handle.get_number_devices() if self._serial_number is None: if n_cameras > 1: raise TypeError( "more than one Ximea camera found but the" " serial_number argument was not specified" ) "serial_number is not specified but there is only one" " camera on the system" ) self._handle.open_device() else: "opening camera with serial number '%s'", self._serial_number ) self._handle.open_device_by_SN(self._serial_number) # Camera.dev_id defaults to zero. However, after opening # the device by serial number is is not updated (see # # So we manually iterate over each possible device ID and # modify dev_id until it behaves as it should. If we # don't fix this and there are multiple cameras connected, # some of the handle methods will return info from another # camera. for dev_id in range(n_cameras): self._handle.dev_id = dev_id if self._serial_number.encode() == self._handle.get_device_info_string( "device_sn" ): break else: raise microscope.InitialiseError( "failed to get DevId for device with SN %s" % self._serial_number ) self._sensor_shape = ( self._handle.get_width_maximum() + self._handle.get_offsetX_maximum(), self._handle.get_height_maximum() + self._handle.get_offsetY_maximum(), ) self._roi = microscope.ROI( left=0, top=0, width=self._sensor_shape[0], height=self._sensor_shape[1], ) self.set_roi(self._roi) self.set_trigger( microscope.TriggerType.SOFTWARE, microscope.TriggerMode.ONCE ) # When we return the sensor temperature we want to return the # temperature that's closest to the chip since that's the one # that has the biggest impact on image noise. We don't know # what temperature sensors each camera has so we try one at a # time, by order of preference, until it works. for temperature_selector in ( "XI_TEMP_IMAGE_SENSOR_DIE", "XI_TEMP_IMAGE_SENSOR_DIE_RAW", "XI_TEMP_SENSOR_BOARD", "XI_TEMP_INTERFACE_BOARD", "XI_TEMP_FRONT_HOUSING", "XI_TEMP_REAR_HOUSING", "XI_TEMP_TEC1_COLD", "XI_TEMP_TEC1_HOT", ): try: self._handle.set_temp_selector(temperature_selector) except xiapi.Xi_error as err: if getattr(err, "status", None) == 12: # Not supported "no hardware support for %s temperature" " readings", temperature_selector, ) else: raise else: "temperature reading set to %s", temperature_selector ) break
[docs] def make_safe(self): if self._acquiring: self.abort()
def _on_disable(self): self.abort() def _on_enable(self):"Preparing for acquisition.") if self._acquiring: self.abort() # actually start camera self._handle.start_acquisition() self._acquiring = True"Acquisition enabled.") return True
[docs] def set_exposure_time(self, value: float) -> None: # exposure times are set in us. try: self._handle.set_exposure_direct(int(value * 1000000)) except Exception as err: _logger.debug("set_exposure_time exception: %s", err)
[docs] def get_exposure_time(self) -> float: # exposure times are in us, so multiple by 1E-6 to get seconds. return self._handle.get_exposure() * 1.0e-6
[docs] def get_cycle_time(self): return 1.0 / self._handle.get_framerate()
def _get_sensor_shape(self) -> typing.Tuple[int, int]: return self._sensor_shape
[docs] def get_sensor_temperature(self) -> float: return self._handle.get_temp()
[docs] def soft_trigger(self) -> None: self.trigger()
def _do_trigger(self) -> None: # Value for set_trigger_software() has no meaning. See # self._handle.set_trigger_software(1) def _get_binning(self) -> microscope.Binning: return self._binning def _set_binning(self, binning: microscope.Binning) -> bool: if binning == self._binning: return True # We don't have a ximea camera that supports binning so we # can't write support for this (a camera without this feature # will raise error 100). When writing this, careful and check # what XiAPI does when mixing ROI and binning. raise NotImplementedError() def _get_roi(self) -> microscope.ROI: assert self._roi == microscope.ROI( self._handle.get_offsetX(), self._handle.get_offsetY(), self._handle.get_width(), self._handle.get_height(), ), "ROI attribute is out of sync with internal camera setting" return self._roi def _set_roi(self, roi: microscope.ROI) -> bool: if ( roi.width + roi.left > self._sensor_shape[0] or roi.height + > self._sensor_shape[1] ): raise ValueError( "ROI %s does not fit in sensor shape %s" % (roi, self._sensor_shape) ) try: # These methods will fail if the width/height plus their # corresponding offsets are higher than the sensor size. # So we start by setting the offset to zero. Cases to # think off: 1) shrinking ROI size, 2) increasing ROI # size, 3) resetting ROI and so can't trust self._roi as # the current state (see this exception handling). with _disabled_camera(self): self._handle.set_offsetX(0) self._handle.set_offsetY(0) self._handle.set_width(roi.width) self._handle.set_height(roi.height) self._handle.set_offsetX(roi.left) self._handle.set_offsetY( except Exception: self._set_roi(self._roi) # set it back to whatever was before raise self._roi = roi return True def _on_shutdown(self) -> None: if self._acquiring: self._handle.stop_acquisition() if self._handle.CAM_OPEN: # We check CAM_OPEN instead of try/catch an exception # because if the camera failed initialisation, XiApi fails # hard with error code -1009 (unknown) since the internal # device handler is NULL. self._handle.close_device() else: _logger.warning("shutdown() called but camera was already closed") @property def trigger_mode(self) -> microscope.TriggerMode: trg_selector = self._handle.get_trigger_selector() try: tmode = TrgSelectorMap[trg_selector] except KeyError: raise Exception( "somehow set to unsupported trigger mode %s" % trg_selector ) return tmode.value @property def trigger_type(self) -> microscope.TriggerType: trg_source = self._handle.get_trigger_source() try: ttype = TrgSourceMap[trg_source] except KeyError: raise Exception( "somehow set to unsupported trigger type %s" % trg_source ) return ttype.value
[docs] def set_trigger( self, ttype: microscope.TriggerType, tmode: microscope.TriggerMode ) -> None: if tmode is not microscope.TriggerMode.ONCE: raise microscope.UnsupportedFeatureError( "%s not supported (only TriggerMode.ONCE)" % tmode ) try: trg_source = TrgSourceMap(ttype) except ValueError: raise microscope.UnsupportedFeatureError( "no support for trigger type %s" % ttype ) if != self._handle.get_trigger_source(): # Changing trigger source requires stopping acquisition. with _disabled_camera(self): self._handle.set_trigger_source(
[docs] def get_trigger_type(self) -> int: ttype_microscope_to_cockpit = { microscope.TriggerType.SOFTWARE:, microscope.TriggerType.RISING_EDGE:, microscope.TriggerType.FALLING_EDGE:, } return ttype_microscope_to_cockpit[self.trigger_type]